Body - Multiple Parameters

Now that we have seen how to use Path and Query, let's see more advanced uses of request body declarations.

Mix Path, Query and body parameters

First, of course, you can mix Path, Query and request body parameter declarations freely and FastAPI will know what to do.

And you can also declare body parameters as optional, by setting the default to None:

from fastapi import FastAPI, Path
from pydantic import BaseModel

app = FastAPI()


class Item(BaseModel):
    name: str
    description: str = None
    price: float
    tax: float = None


@app.put("/items/{item_id}")
async def update_item(
    *,
    item_id: int = Path(..., title="The ID of the item to get", ge=0, le=1000),
    q: str = None,
    item: Item = None,
):
    results = {"item_id": item_id}
    if q:
        results.update({"q": q})
    if item:
        results.update({"item": item})
    return results

Note

Notice that, in this case, the item that would be taken from the body is optional. As it has a None default value.

Multiple body parameters

In the previous example, the path operations would expect a JSON body with the attributes of an Item, like:

{
    "name": "Foo",
    "description": "The pretender",
    "price": 42.0,
    "tax": 3.2
}

But you can also declare multiple body parameters, e.g. item and user:

from fastapi import FastAPI
from pydantic import BaseModel

app = FastAPI()


class Item(BaseModel):
    name: str
    description: str = None
    price: float
    tax: float = None


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    full_name: str = None


@app.put("/items/{item_id}")
async def update_item(*, item_id: int, item: Item, user: User):
    results = {"item_id": item_id, "item": item, "user": user}
    return results

In this case, FastAPI will notice that there are more than one body parameters in the function (two parameters that are Pydantic models).

So, it will then use the parameter names as keys (field names) in the body, and expect a body like:

{
    "item": {
        "name": "Foo",
        "description": "The pretender",
        "price": 42.0,
        "tax": 3.2
    },
    "user": {
        "username": "dave",
        "full_name": "Dave Grohl"
    }
}

Note

Notice that even though the item was declared the same way as before, it is now expected to be inside of the body with a key item.

FastAPI will do the automatic conversion from the request, so that the parameter item receives it's specific content and the same for user.

It will perform the validation of the compound data, and will document it like that for the OpenAPI schema and automatic docs.

Singular values in body

The same way there is a Query and Path to define extra data for query and path parameters, FastAPI provides an equivalent Body.

For example, extending the previous model, you could decide that you want to have another key importance in the same body, besides the item and user.

If you declare it as is, because it is a singular value, FastAPI will assume that it is a query parameter.

But you can instruct FastAPI to treat it as another body key using Body:

from fastapi import Body, FastAPI
from pydantic import BaseModel

app = FastAPI()


class Item(BaseModel):
    name: str
    description: str = None
    price: float
    tax: float = None


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    full_name: str = None


@app.put("/items/{item_id}")
async def update_item(
    *, item_id: int, item: Item, user: User, importance: int = Body(...)
):
    results = {"item_id": item_id, "item": item, "user": user, "importance": importance}
    return results

In this case, FastAPI will expect a body like:

{
    "item": {
        "name": "Foo",
        "description": "The pretender",
        "price": 42.0,
        "tax": 3.2
    },
    "user": {
        "username": "dave",
        "full_name": "Dave Grohl"
    },
    "importance": 5
}

Again, it will convert the data types, validate, document, etc.

Multiple body params and query

Of course, you can also declare additional query parameters whenever you need, additional to any body parameters.

As, by default, singular values are interpreted as query parameters, you don't have to explicitly add a Query, you can just do:

q: str = None

as in:

from fastapi import Body, FastAPI
from pydantic import BaseModel

app = FastAPI()


class Item(BaseModel):
    name: str
    description: str = None
    price: float
    tax: float = None


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    full_name: str = None


@app.put("/items/{item_id}")
async def update_item(
    *,
    item_id: int,
    item: Item,
    user: User,
    importance: int = Body(..., gt=0),
    q: str = None
):
    results = {"item_id": item_id, "item": item, "user": user, "importance": importance}
    if q:
        results.update({"q": q})
    return results

Info

Body also has all the same extra validation and metadata parameters as Query,Path and others you will see later.

Embed a single body parameter

Let's say you only have a single item body parameter from a Pydantic model Item.

By default, FastAPI will then expect its body directly.

But if you want it to expect a JSON with a key item and inside of it the model contents, as it does when you declare extra body parameters, you can use the special Body parameter embed:

item: Item = Body(..., embed=True)

as in:

from fastapi import Body, FastAPI
from pydantic import BaseModel

app = FastAPI()


class Item(BaseModel):
    name: str
    description: str = None
    price: float
    tax: float = None


@app.put("/items/{item_id}")
async def update_item(*, item_id: int, item: Item = Body(..., embed=True)):
    results = {"item_id": item_id, "item": item}
    return results

In this case FastAPI will expect a body like:

{
    "item": {
        "name": "Foo",
        "description": "The pretender",
        "price": 42.0,
        "tax": 3.2
    }
}

instead of:

{
    "name": "Foo",
    "description": "The pretender",
    "price": 42.0,
    "tax": 3.2
}

Recap

You can add multiple body parameters to your path operation function, even though a request can only have a single body.

But FastAPI will handle it, give you the correct data in your function, and validate and document the correct schema in the path operation.

You can also declare singular values to be received as part of the body.

And you can instruct FastAPI to embed the body in a key even when there is only a single parameter declared.