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OAuth2-Scopes

Sie können OAuth2-Scopes direkt in FastAPI verwenden, sie sind nahtlos integriert.

Das ermöglicht es Ihnen, ein feingranuliertes Berechtigungssystem nach dem OAuth2-Standard in Ihre OpenAPI-Anwendung (und deren API-Dokumentation) zu integrieren.

OAuth2 mit Scopes ist der Mechanismus, der von vielen großen Authentifizierungsanbietern wie Facebook, Google, GitHub, Microsoft, Twitter usw. verwendet wird. Sie verwenden ihn, um Benutzern und Anwendungen spezifische Berechtigungen zu erteilen.

Jedes Mal, wenn Sie sich mit Facebook, Google, GitHub, Microsoft oder Twitter anmelden („log in with“), verwendet die entsprechende Anwendung OAuth2 mit Scopes.

In diesem Abschnitt erfahren Sie, wie Sie Authentifizierung und Autorisierung mit demselben OAuth2, mit Scopes in Ihrer FastAPI-Anwendung verwalten.

Achtung

Dies ist ein mehr oder weniger fortgeschrittener Abschnitt. Wenn Sie gerade erst anfangen, können Sie ihn überspringen.

Sie benötigen nicht unbedingt OAuth2-Scopes, und Sie können die Authentifizierung und Autorisierung handhaben wie Sie möchten.

Aber OAuth2 mit Scopes kann bequem in Ihre API (mit OpenAPI) und deren API-Dokumentation integriert werden.

Dennoch, verwenden Sie solche Scopes oder andere Sicherheits-/Autorisierungsanforderungen in Ihrem Code so wie Sie es möchten.

In vielen Fällen kann OAuth2 mit Scopes ein Overkill sein.

Aber wenn Sie wissen, dass Sie es brauchen oder neugierig sind, lesen Sie weiter.

OAuth2-Scopes und OpenAPI

Die OAuth2-Spezifikation definiert „Scopes“ als eine Liste von durch Leerzeichen getrennten Strings.

Der Inhalt jedes dieser Strings kann ein beliebiges Format haben, sollte jedoch keine Leerzeichen enthalten.

Diese Scopes stellen „Berechtigungen“ dar.

In OpenAPI (z. B. der API-Dokumentation) können Sie „Sicherheitsschemas“ definieren.

Wenn eines dieser Sicherheitsschemas OAuth2 verwendet, können Sie auch Scopes deklarieren und verwenden.

Jeder „Scope“ ist nur ein String (ohne Leerzeichen).

Er wird normalerweise verwendet, um bestimmte Sicherheitsberechtigungen zu deklarieren, zum Beispiel:

  • users:read oder users:write sind gängige Beispiele.
  • instagram_basic wird von Facebook / Instagram verwendet.
  • https://www.googleapis.com/auth/drive wird von Google verwendet.

Info

In OAuth2 ist ein „Scope“ nur ein String, der eine bestimmte erforderliche Berechtigung deklariert.

Es spielt keine Rolle, ob er andere Zeichen wie : enthält oder ob es eine URL ist.

Diese Details sind implementierungsspezifisch.

Für OAuth2 sind es einfach nur Strings.

Gesamtübersicht

Sehen wir uns zunächst kurz die Teile an, die sich gegenüber den Beispielen im Haupt-Tutorial – Benutzerhandbuch für OAuth2 mit Password (und Hashing), Bearer mit JWT-Tokens ändern. Diesmal verwenden wir OAuth2-Scopes:

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import Annotated

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: str | None = None
    scopes: list[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: str | None = None
    full_name: str | None = None
    disabled: bool | None = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: timedelta | None = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: Annotated[str, Depends(oauth2_scheme)]
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"])],
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: Annotated[OAuth2PasswordRequestForm, Depends()],
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_active_user)],
):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"])],
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_user)]):
    return {"status": "ok"}
from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import Annotated, List, Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: List[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: Annotated[str, Depends(oauth2_scheme)]
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"])],
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: Annotated[OAuth2PasswordRequestForm, Depends()],
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_active_user)],
):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"])],
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_user)]):
    return {"status": "ok"}
from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import List, Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError
from typing_extensions import Annotated

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: List[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: Annotated[str, Depends(oauth2_scheme)]
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"])],
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: Annotated[OAuth2PasswordRequestForm, Depends()],
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_active_user)],
):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"])],
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_user)]):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Tipp

Bevorzugen Sie die Annotated-Version, falls möglich.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: str | None = None
    scopes: list[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: str | None = None
    full_name: str | None = None
    disabled: bool | None = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: timedelta | None = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: str = Depends(oauth2_scheme)
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"]),
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: OAuth2PasswordRequestForm = Depends(),
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_active_user)):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"]),
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_user)):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Tipp

Bevorzugen Sie die Annotated-Version, falls möglich.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: list[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: str = Depends(oauth2_scheme)
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"]),
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: OAuth2PasswordRequestForm = Depends(),
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_active_user)):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"]),
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_user)):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Tipp

Bevorzugen Sie die Annotated-Version, falls möglich.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import List, Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: List[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: str = Depends(oauth2_scheme)
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"]),
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: OAuth2PasswordRequestForm = Depends(),
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_active_user)):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"]),
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_user)):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Sehen wir uns diese Änderungen nun Schritt für Schritt an.

OAuth2-Sicherheitsschema

Die erste Änderung ist, dass wir jetzt das OAuth2-Sicherheitsschema mit zwei verfügbaren Scopes deklarieren: me und items.

Der scopes-Parameter erhält ein dict mit jedem Scope als Schlüssel und dessen Beschreibung als Wert:

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import Annotated

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: str | None = None
    scopes: list[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: str | None = None
    full_name: str | None = None
    disabled: bool | None = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: timedelta | None = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: Annotated[str, Depends(oauth2_scheme)]
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"])],
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: Annotated[OAuth2PasswordRequestForm, Depends()],
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_active_user)],
):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"])],
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_user)]):
    return {"status": "ok"}
from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import Annotated, List, Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: List[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: Annotated[str, Depends(oauth2_scheme)]
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"])],
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: Annotated[OAuth2PasswordRequestForm, Depends()],
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_active_user)],
):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"])],
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_user)]):
    return {"status": "ok"}
from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import List, Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError
from typing_extensions import Annotated

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: List[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: Annotated[str, Depends(oauth2_scheme)]
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"])],
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: Annotated[OAuth2PasswordRequestForm, Depends()],
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_active_user)],
):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"])],
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_user)]):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Tipp

Bevorzugen Sie die Annotated-Version, falls möglich.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: str | None = None
    scopes: list[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: str | None = None
    full_name: str | None = None
    disabled: bool | None = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: timedelta | None = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: str = Depends(oauth2_scheme)
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"]),
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: OAuth2PasswordRequestForm = Depends(),
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_active_user)):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"]),
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_user)):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Tipp

Bevorzugen Sie die Annotated-Version, falls möglich.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: list[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: str = Depends(oauth2_scheme)
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"]),
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: OAuth2PasswordRequestForm = Depends(),
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_active_user)):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"]),
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_user)):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Tipp

Bevorzugen Sie die Annotated-Version, falls möglich.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import List, Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: List[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: str = Depends(oauth2_scheme)
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"]),
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: OAuth2PasswordRequestForm = Depends(),
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_active_user)):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"]),
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_user)):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Da wir diese Scopes jetzt deklarieren, werden sie in der API-Dokumentation angezeigt, wenn Sie sich einloggen/autorisieren.

Und Sie können auswählen, auf welche Scopes Sie Zugriff haben möchten: me und items.

Das ist derselbe Mechanismus, der verwendet wird, wenn Sie beim Anmelden mit Facebook, Google, GitHub, usw. Berechtigungen erteilen:

JWT-Token mit Scopes

Ändern Sie nun die Token-Pfadoperation, um die angeforderten Scopes zurückzugeben.

Wir verwenden immer noch dasselbe OAuth2PasswordRequestForm. Es enthält eine Eigenschaft scopes mit einer liste von strs für jeden Scope, den es im Request erhalten hat.

Und wir geben die Scopes als Teil des JWT-Tokens zurück.

Gefahr

Der Einfachheit halber fügen wir hier die empfangenen Scopes direkt zum Token hinzu.

Aus Sicherheitsgründen sollten Sie jedoch sicherstellen, dass Sie in Ihrer Anwendung nur die Scopes hinzufügen, die der Benutzer tatsächlich haben kann, oder die Sie vordefiniert haben.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import Annotated

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: str | None = None
    scopes: list[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: str | None = None
    full_name: str | None = None
    disabled: bool | None = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: timedelta | None = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: Annotated[str, Depends(oauth2_scheme)]
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"])],
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: Annotated[OAuth2PasswordRequestForm, Depends()],
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_active_user)],
):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"])],
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_user)]):
    return {"status": "ok"}
from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import Annotated, List, Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: List[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: Annotated[str, Depends(oauth2_scheme)]
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"])],
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: Annotated[OAuth2PasswordRequestForm, Depends()],
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_active_user)],
):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"])],
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_user)]):
    return {"status": "ok"}
from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import List, Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError
from typing_extensions import Annotated

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: List[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: Annotated[str, Depends(oauth2_scheme)]
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"])],
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: Annotated[OAuth2PasswordRequestForm, Depends()],
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_active_user)],
):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"])],
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_user)]):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Tipp

Bevorzugen Sie die Annotated-Version, falls möglich.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: str | None = None
    scopes: list[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: str | None = None
    full_name: str | None = None
    disabled: bool | None = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: timedelta | None = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: str = Depends(oauth2_scheme)
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"]),
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: OAuth2PasswordRequestForm = Depends(),
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_active_user)):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"]),
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_user)):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Tipp

Bevorzugen Sie die Annotated-Version, falls möglich.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: list[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: str = Depends(oauth2_scheme)
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"]),
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: OAuth2PasswordRequestForm = Depends(),
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_active_user)):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"]),
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_user)):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Tipp

Bevorzugen Sie die Annotated-Version, falls möglich.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import List, Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: List[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: str = Depends(oauth2_scheme)
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"]),
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: OAuth2PasswordRequestForm = Depends(),
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_active_user)):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"]),
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_user)):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Scopes in Pfadoperationen und Abhängigkeiten deklarieren

Jetzt deklarieren wir, dass die Pfadoperation für /users/me/items/ den Scope items erfordert.

Dazu importieren und verwenden wir Security von fastapi.

Sie können Security verwenden, um Abhängigkeiten zu deklarieren (genau wie Depends), aber Security erhält auch einen Parameter scopes mit einer Liste von Scopes (Strings).

In diesem Fall übergeben wir eine Abhängigkeitsfunktion get_current_active_user an Security (genauso wie wir es mit Depends tun würden).

Wir übergeben aber auch eine liste von Scopes, in diesem Fall mit nur einem Scope: items (es könnten mehrere sein).

Und die Abhängigkeitsfunktion get_current_active_user kann auch Unterabhängigkeiten deklarieren, nicht nur mit Depends, sondern auch mit Security. Ihre eigene Unterabhängigkeitsfunktion (get_current_user) und weitere Scope-Anforderungen deklarierend.

In diesem Fall erfordert sie den Scope me (sie könnte mehr als einen Scope erfordern).

Hinweis

Sie müssen nicht unbedingt an verschiedenen Stellen verschiedene Scopes hinzufügen.

Wir tun dies hier, um zu demonstrieren, wie FastAPI auf verschiedenen Ebenen deklarierte Scopes verarbeitet.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import Annotated

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: str | None = None
    scopes: list[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: str | None = None
    full_name: str | None = None
    disabled: bool | None = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: timedelta | None = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: Annotated[str, Depends(oauth2_scheme)]
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"])],
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: Annotated[OAuth2PasswordRequestForm, Depends()],
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_active_user)],
):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"])],
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_user)]):
    return {"status": "ok"}
from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import Annotated, List, Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: List[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: Annotated[str, Depends(oauth2_scheme)]
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"])],
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: Annotated[OAuth2PasswordRequestForm, Depends()],
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_active_user)],
):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"])],
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_user)]):
    return {"status": "ok"}
from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import List, Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError
from typing_extensions import Annotated

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: List[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: Annotated[str, Depends(oauth2_scheme)]
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"])],
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: Annotated[OAuth2PasswordRequestForm, Depends()],
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_active_user)],
):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"])],
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_user)]):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Tipp

Bevorzugen Sie die Annotated-Version, falls möglich.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: str | None = None
    scopes: list[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: str | None = None
    full_name: str | None = None
    disabled: bool | None = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: timedelta | None = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: str = Depends(oauth2_scheme)
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"]),
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: OAuth2PasswordRequestForm = Depends(),
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_active_user)):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"]),
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_user)):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Tipp

Bevorzugen Sie die Annotated-Version, falls möglich.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: list[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: str = Depends(oauth2_scheme)
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"]),
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: OAuth2PasswordRequestForm = Depends(),
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_active_user)):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"]),
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_user)):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Tipp

Bevorzugen Sie die Annotated-Version, falls möglich.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import List, Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: List[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: str = Depends(oauth2_scheme)
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"]),
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: OAuth2PasswordRequestForm = Depends(),
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_active_user)):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"]),
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_user)):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Technische Details

Security ist tatsächlich eine Unterklasse von Depends und hat nur noch einen zusätzlichen Parameter, den wir später kennenlernen werden.

Durch die Verwendung von Security anstelle von Depends weiß FastAPI jedoch, dass es Sicherheits-Scopes deklarieren, intern verwenden und die API mit OpenAPI dokumentieren kann.

Wenn Sie jedoch Query, Path, Depends, Security und andere von fastapi importieren, handelt es sich tatsächlich um Funktionen, die spezielle Klassen zurückgeben.

SecurityScopes verwenden

Aktualisieren Sie nun die Abhängigkeit get_current_user.

Das ist diejenige, die von den oben genannten Abhängigkeiten verwendet wird.

Hier verwenden wir dasselbe OAuth2-Schema, das wir zuvor erstellt haben, und deklarieren es als Abhängigkeit: oauth2_scheme.

Da diese Abhängigkeitsfunktion selbst keine Scope-Anforderungen hat, können wir Depends mit oauth2_scheme verwenden. Wir müssen Security nicht verwenden, wenn wir keine Sicherheits-Scopes angeben müssen.

Wir deklarieren auch einen speziellen Parameter vom Typ SecurityScopes, der aus fastapi.security importiert wird.

Diese SecurityScopes-Klasse ähnelt Request (Request wurde verwendet, um das Request-Objekt direkt zu erhalten).

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import Annotated

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: str | None = None
    scopes: list[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: str | None = None
    full_name: str | None = None
    disabled: bool | None = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: timedelta | None = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: Annotated[str, Depends(oauth2_scheme)]
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"])],
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: Annotated[OAuth2PasswordRequestForm, Depends()],
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_active_user)],
):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"])],
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_user)]):
    return {"status": "ok"}
from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import Annotated, List, Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: List[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: Annotated[str, Depends(oauth2_scheme)]
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"])],
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: Annotated[OAuth2PasswordRequestForm, Depends()],
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_active_user)],
):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"])],
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_user)]):
    return {"status": "ok"}
from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import List, Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError
from typing_extensions import Annotated

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: List[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: Annotated[str, Depends(oauth2_scheme)]
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"])],
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: Annotated[OAuth2PasswordRequestForm, Depends()],
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_active_user)],
):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"])],
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_user)]):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Tipp

Bevorzugen Sie die Annotated-Version, falls möglich.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: str | None = None
    scopes: list[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: str | None = None
    full_name: str | None = None
    disabled: bool | None = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: timedelta | None = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: str = Depends(oauth2_scheme)
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"]),
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: OAuth2PasswordRequestForm = Depends(),
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_active_user)):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"]),
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_user)):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Tipp

Bevorzugen Sie die Annotated-Version, falls möglich.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: list[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: str = Depends(oauth2_scheme)
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"]),
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: OAuth2PasswordRequestForm = Depends(),
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_active_user)):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"]),
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_user)):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Tipp

Bevorzugen Sie die Annotated-Version, falls möglich.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import List, Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: List[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: str = Depends(oauth2_scheme)
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"]),
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: OAuth2PasswordRequestForm = Depends(),
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_active_user)):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"]),
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_user)):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Die scopes verwenden

Der Parameter security_scopes wird vom Typ SecurityScopes sein.

Dieses verfügt über ein Attribut scopes mit einer Liste, die alle von ihm selbst benötigten Scopes enthält und ferner alle Abhängigkeiten, die dieses als Unterabhängigkeit verwenden. Sprich, alle „Dependanten“ ... das mag verwirrend klingen, wird aber später noch einmal erklärt.

Das security_scopes-Objekt (der Klasse SecurityScopes) stellt außerdem ein scope_str-Attribut mit einem einzelnen String bereit, der die durch Leerzeichen getrennten Scopes enthält (den werden wir verwenden).

Wir erstellen eine HTTPException, die wir später an mehreren Stellen wiederverwenden (raisen) können.

In diese Exception fügen wir (falls vorhanden) die erforderlichen Scopes als durch Leerzeichen getrennten String ein (unter Verwendung von scope_str). Wir fügen diesen String mit den Scopes in den Header WWW-Authenticate ein (das ist Teil der Spezifikation).

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import Annotated

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: str | None = None
    scopes: list[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: str | None = None
    full_name: str | None = None
    disabled: bool | None = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: timedelta | None = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: Annotated[str, Depends(oauth2_scheme)]
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"])],
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: Annotated[OAuth2PasswordRequestForm, Depends()],
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_active_user)],
):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"])],
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_user)]):
    return {"status": "ok"}
from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import Annotated, List, Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: List[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: Annotated[str, Depends(oauth2_scheme)]
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"])],
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: Annotated[OAuth2PasswordRequestForm, Depends()],
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_active_user)],
):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"])],
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_user)]):
    return {"status": "ok"}
from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import List, Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError
from typing_extensions import Annotated

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: List[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: Annotated[str, Depends(oauth2_scheme)]
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"])],
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: Annotated[OAuth2PasswordRequestForm, Depends()],
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_active_user)],
):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"])],
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_user)]):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Tipp

Bevorzugen Sie die Annotated-Version, falls möglich.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: str | None = None
    scopes: list[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: str | None = None
    full_name: str | None = None
    disabled: bool | None = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: timedelta | None = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: str = Depends(oauth2_scheme)
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"]),
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: OAuth2PasswordRequestForm = Depends(),
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_active_user)):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"]),
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_user)):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Tipp

Bevorzugen Sie die Annotated-Version, falls möglich.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: list[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: str = Depends(oauth2_scheme)
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"]),
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: OAuth2PasswordRequestForm = Depends(),
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_active_user)):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"]),
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_user)):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Tipp

Bevorzugen Sie die Annotated-Version, falls möglich.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import List, Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: List[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: str = Depends(oauth2_scheme)
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"]),
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: OAuth2PasswordRequestForm = Depends(),
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_active_user)):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: User = Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"]),
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: User = Depends(get_current_user)):
    return {"status": "ok"}

Den username und das Format der Daten überprüfen

Wir verifizieren, dass wir einen username erhalten, und extrahieren die Scopes.

Und dann validieren wir diese Daten mit dem Pydantic-Modell (wobei wir die ValidationError-Exception abfangen), und wenn wir beim Lesen des JWT-Tokens oder beim Validieren der Daten mit Pydantic einen Fehler erhalten, lösen wir die zuvor erstellte HTTPException aus.

Dazu aktualisieren wir das Pydantic-Modell TokenData mit einem neuen Attribut scopes.

Durch die Validierung der Daten mit Pydantic können wir sicherstellen, dass wir beispielsweise präzise eine liste von strs mit den Scopes und einen str mit dem username haben.

Anstelle beispielsweise eines dicts oder etwas anderem, was später in der Anwendung zu Fehlern führen könnte und darum ein Sicherheitsrisiko darstellt.

Wir verifizieren auch, dass wir einen Benutzer mit diesem Benutzernamen haben, und wenn nicht, lösen wir dieselbe Exception aus, die wir zuvor erstellt haben.

from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import Annotated

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: str | None = None
    scopes: list[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: str | None = None
    full_name: str | None = None
    disabled: bool | None = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: timedelta | None = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: Annotated[str, Depends(oauth2_scheme)]
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value = f'Bearer scope="{security_scopes.scope_str}"'
    else:
        authenticate_value = "Bearer"
    credentials_exception = HTTPException(
        status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
        detail="Could not validate credentials",
        headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
    )
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, SECRET_KEY, algorithms=[ALGORITHM])
        username: str = payload.get("sub")
        if username is None:
            raise credentials_exception
        token_scopes = payload.get("scopes", [])
        token_data = TokenData(scopes=token_scopes, username=username)
    except (JWTError, ValidationError):
        raise credentials_exception
    user = get_user(fake_users_db, username=token_data.username)
    if user is None:
        raise credentials_exception
    for scope in security_scopes.scopes:
        if scope not in token_data.scopes:
            raise HTTPException(
                status_code=status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED,
                detail="Not enough permissions",
                headers={"WWW-Authenticate": authenticate_value},
            )
    return user


async def get_current_active_user(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_user, scopes=["me"])],
):
    if current_user.disabled:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Inactive user")
    return current_user


@app.post("/token")
async def login_for_access_token(
    form_data: Annotated[OAuth2PasswordRequestForm, Depends()],
) -> Token:
    user = authenticate_user(fake_users_db, form_data.username, form_data.password)
    if not user:
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail="Incorrect username or password")
    access_token_expires = timedelta(minutes=ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES)
    access_token = create_access_token(
        data={"sub": user.username, "scopes": form_data.scopes},
        expires_delta=access_token_expires,
    )
    return Token(access_token=access_token, token_type="bearer")


@app.get("/users/me/", response_model=User)
async def read_users_me(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_active_user)],
):
    return current_user


@app.get("/users/me/items/")
async def read_own_items(
    current_user: Annotated[User, Security(get_current_active_user, scopes=["items"])],
):
    return [{"item_id": "Foo", "owner": current_user.username}]


@app.get("/status/")
async def read_system_status(current_user: Annotated[User, Depends(get_current_user)]):
    return {"status": "ok"}
from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
from typing import Annotated, List, Union

from fastapi import Depends, FastAPI, HTTPException, Security, status
from fastapi.security import (
    OAuth2PasswordBearer,
    OAuth2PasswordRequestForm,
    SecurityScopes,
)
from jose import JWTError, jwt
from passlib.context import CryptContext
from pydantic import BaseModel, ValidationError

# to get a string like this run:
# openssl rand -hex 32
SECRET_KEY = "09d25e094faa6ca2556c818166b7a9563b93f7099f6f0f4caa6cf63b88e8d3e7"
ALGORITHM = "HS256"
ACCESS_TOKEN_EXPIRE_MINUTES = 30


fake_users_db = {
    "johndoe": {
        "username": "johndoe",
        "full_name": "John Doe",
        "email": "johndoe@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$EixZaYVK1fsbw1ZfbX3OXePaWxn96p36WQoeG6Lruj3vjPGga31lW",
        "disabled": False,
    },
    "alice": {
        "username": "alice",
        "full_name": "Alice Chains",
        "email": "alicechains@example.com",
        "hashed_password": "$2b$12$gSvqqUPvlXP2tfVFaWK1Be7DlH.PKZbv5H8KnzzVgXXbVxpva.pFm",
        "disabled": True,
    },
}


class Token(BaseModel):
    access_token: str
    token_type: str


class TokenData(BaseModel):
    username: Union[str, None] = None
    scopes: List[str] = []


class User(BaseModel):
    username: str
    email: Union[str, None] = None
    full_name: Union[str, None] = None
    disabled: Union[bool, None] = None


class UserInDB(User):
    hashed_password: str


pwd_context = CryptContext(schemes=["bcrypt"], deprecated="auto")

oauth2_scheme = OAuth2PasswordBearer(
    tokenUrl="token",
    scopes={"me": "Read information about the current user.", "items": "Read items."},
)

app = FastAPI()


def verify_password(plain_password, hashed_password):
    return pwd_context.verify(plain_password, hashed_password)


def get_password_hash(password):
    return pwd_context.hash(password)


def get_user(db, username: str):
    if username in db:
        user_dict = db[username]
        return UserInDB(**user_dict)


def authenticate_user(fake_db, username: str, password: str):
    user = get_user(fake_db, username)
    if not user:
        return False
    if not verify_password(password, user.hashed_password):
        return False
    return user


def create_access_token(data: dict, expires_delta: Union[timedelta, None] = None):
    to_encode = data.copy()
    if expires_delta:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + expires_delta
    else:
        expire = datetime.now(timezone.utc) + timedelta(minutes=15)
    to_encode.update({"exp": expire})
    encoded_jwt = jwt.encode(to_encode, SECRET_KEY, algorithm=ALGORITHM)
    return encoded_jwt


async def get_current_user(
    security_scopes: SecurityScopes, token: Annotated[str, Depends(oauth2_scheme)]
):
    if security_scopes.scopes:
        authenticate_value<